This chapter explores a prominent issue in international architectural culture during the last decades of the twentieth century, that of cultural identity. It asks: How can one represent one’s own cultural heritage or that of one’s clients in order to create buildings specific to the places in which they are built while simultaneously making those buildings appealing enough to an international audience to achieve fame? What combination of climate, geology, and culture constitutes place? Some of the more sophisticated answers to these complex questions emerge in the Middle East and South Asia, where many architectural showpieces of the modern movement have been erected. It is shown that while modern architecture is often denounced as a built diagram of homogeneous global capital, there remains considerable variation in where and how it is deployed.